RACE, RACIAL, RACIST – A RACE is a group of individuals differentiated through distinct physical characteristics and common ancestry. The term MORPHOLOGICAL ( MORPHOLOGY ) refers to people with physical characteristics that are more similar that those of others with similar characteristics to one another. The set (ABCDEFG) is more similar than the set (EFGHIJKL) despite the fact that they both share and human beings are inordinately sensitive to morphological properties or we would not be able to uniquely identify one another. (As can be a problem when individuals from one race are exposed to individuals from another race and have difficulty in facial recognition for some period of time until they have mastered the skill.)
RACISM – the illogical application of the properties of a class to the individual, or the property of the individual to the class. Racism is simply human stupidity. Given the distribution of individuals with similar MORPHOLOGICAL properties, it is impossible to know based entirely upon MORPHOLOGICAL properties what the NON-MORPHOLOGICAL behaviors of the individual may be. In non market activities such properties may be material, but since the market neutralizes morphological properties except at the margins, and most of us act across morphological boundaries under market circumstances, and only non-morphological properties of utility in the market, then the application of non-market properties to the process of interpersonal action inside of a market is simply illogical. However, if we consider that political activity is non-market activity for the purposes of group coercion, then the reality is that morphological non-market properties and behaviors have political consequences. ie: people vote with their race in mind in the majority of cases and it is in their interest to do so. There are no neutral political behaviors, only neutral market transactions. FOr this reason we cannot be morphologically blind in political matters as doing so is simply to confuse the irrelevance of race in the market with the relevance of race in politics — and therefore it is to be preoccupied with a falsehood. The issue political problem in heterogeneous societies is to ensure that no one coerces anyone else by fraud, violence or theft. It is economically disadvantageous to limit one’s ability to reach customers. The market is not racist. Only laws that artificially abuse the market are racist. What people dislike and will always dislike is involuntary racial redistribution, especially redistribution of status and political power, when that power allows us to alter the market with non-market actions.
RACE REALISM – the logical assertion that human beings act, and it is beneficial for them to act, with racial preferences in almost all areas of life, and will always continue to do so except at the margins. And that political denial of this reality does not benefit the cooperation and collaboration between racial groups.
Note: I define these terms according to their Philosophical Usage. Scientific usage varies because statements in the physical sciences are by definition independent of human perception and therefore are simplistic. When we instead discuss the knowledge that humans rely upon for their actions, in scientific terms, we find that humans can rely upon habits, norms, parables and myths, the expressions of which may be arational (not applying rational means), or irrational (the logic used is faulty), but the application of which induces actions that produce desired results. This distinction between irrational and arational lets us separate the expression of human knowledge (which may or may not be rational) and content of statements (which may or may not be true) differently.
RATIONAL – Reasonable. A conclusion achieved through the process of reason. Drawing conclusions form juxtaposing facts to each other and seeing how they relate an in what direction they point. Does not imply that the answer is correct. Only that logic was properly applied.
ARATIONAL – Having no rational characteristics; having no capacity to reason. In philosophy, not within the domain of what can be understood or analyzed by reason; outside the competence of the rules of reason.
RATIONALISM – The principle or practice of accepting reason as the only authority in determining one’s opinions or course of action. The doctrine that knowledge comes wholly from pure reason, without aid from the senses; intellectualism. The doctrine that rejects revelation and the supernatural, and makes reason the sole source for religious truth.
REDISTRIBUTION / REVERSE REDISTRIBUTION – Redistribution refers to the collection of taxes which are then (Redistribution is enforced charity at best, political profiteering and class warfare at the median, or economic enslavement at its worst. Slavery is Redistribution from the laborer to the slave owner.) I use the term to refer to the process by which people who adopt the social ethics, mores, manners, and property portfolio, and thereby contribute FORGONE OPPORTUNITY COSTS, to the maintenance of the SOCIAL ORDER obtain a return on their investment. I object to this process being incalculable and based upon extortion rather than the cooperative development of increases in productivity for mutual gain. I do not object to redistribution. REVERSE REDISTRIBUTION refers to the use of the apparatus of the state to extract money or effort from the lower classes for distribution to the upper classes, usually by way of political profiteering, or credit schemes which PRIVATIZE WINS AND SOCIALIZE LOSSES, or market regulation and CORPORATISM that subsidize industries at the expense of the citizenry.
REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM, abbrev. REDUCTIO – (Lat., reduction to absurdity) The process of reasoning that derives a contradiction from some set of assumptions, and concludes that the set as a whole is untenable, so that at least one of them is to be rejected. In general, the use of an example that is too simple to be used in a syllogism or as an analogy, when the CAUSAL DENSITY of the topic under consideration is higher than the example can account for.
REDUCTIONISM – The belief that “simpler is better”. Reducing the complexities of life and reality to seemingly more convenient equivalents. (Usually takes some form of weak scientism and/or naturalism. i.e. naturalism reduces morality to properties which can be described by appealing to biology or psychology)
REGIME UNCERTAINTY : the tendency (whether scientific or not) for businesses and organizations to limit their risk (expansion, or business development, or investment) due to fear of government intervention, especially in taxation. While the effect is disputed, in that the Regime Uncertainty is but one of the number of stimuli affecting human risk taking in an economy, it appears that small business is materially influenced by Regime Uncertainty in the abstract, more than it is by any particular policy. This field needs greater investigation, but it appears to support Mandelbrotian interpretation of stock market data as well as fashion, and political trends in that human perception consists of a set of accumulated and often unarticulated and uncritically evaluated stimuli that due to complexity are inseparable. We know that in at least 2/3 of the population, such environmental suggestibility is extremely high.
RELATIVIST SYSTEM – An ethical system in which right and wrong are not absolute and unchanging but relative to one’s culture (cultural relativism) or ones own personal preferences (moral subjectivism).
REAL (REALITY) – Existing or happening as or in fact; actual; true, objectively so. Not merely seeming, pretended, imagined, fictitious, nominal, or ostensible. Existing objectively: actual (not merely possible or ideal), or essential, absolute, ultimate (not relative, derivative, phenomenal, etc.).
RELIGION – 1. Belief in a divine or superhuman power or powers to be obeyed and worshiped as the creator(s) and ruler(s) of the universe; expression of such a belief in conduct and ritual. 2. Any specific system of belief, worship, conduct, etc., often involving a code of ethics and a philosophy; any system of beliefs, practices, ethical values, etc., resembling, suggestive of, or likened to such a system (humanism or communism as a religion). See RITUAL.
RENT SEEKING – People are said to seek rents when they try to obtain benefits for themselves through the political arena, rather than by earning profits through economic transactions and the production of added wealth.
RISK / UNCERTAINTY – Measurable and quantitative risk versus non-measurable and non-quantitative uncertainty. I use these terms to separate closed systems, where no single event can alter the outcome (throwing dice), from open systems where a single, unpredictable, innovative event can make all estimation irrelevant. … ie: “there is too much uncertainty to calculate risk.” See LUDIC FALLACY.
Frank Knight: Uncertainty must be taken in a sense radically distinct from the familiar notion of Risk, from which it has never been properly separated. The term “risk,” as loosely used in everyday speech and in economic discussion, really covers two things which, functionally at least, in their causal relations to the phenomena of economic organization, are categorically different. … The essential fact is that “risk” means in some cases a quantity susceptible of measurement, while at other times it is something distinctly not of this character; and there are far-reaching and crucial differences in the bearings of the phenomenon depending on which of the two is really present and operating. … It will appear that a measurable uncertainty, or “risk” proper, as we shall use the term, is so far different from an unmeasurable one that it is not in effect an uncertainty at all. We … accordingly restrict the term “uncertainty” to cases of the non-quantitive type.
“…there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns—the ones we don’t know we don’t know.”—Donald Rumsfeld
RITUAL – “Ceremonies performed in accordance with social tradition.” It appears that human beings — for cognitive reasons that have hard-wired emotional consequences (ie: behavior) — need to collect in groups that share similar predictable habits and actions. We know that these ritualistic environments produce a calming effect, and reduce fear, particularly fear of uncertainty, fear of others, fear of ostracization, and fear of status rejection. We know that the major religions use group prayer to both create the feeling of comfort and habituate the membership into associating the feeling with the religious rituals, and the rituals with the tenets, and therefore bind the group together and to the religious tenets.
The greeks used festivals and temples for the purposes of social bonding. In particular they used Plays and Sports. These are perhaps the two most effective religious vehicles if the canon can be enforced. (The greek plays migrated to entertainment from its original pedagogical celebration, at which point they lost their meaning.) The purpose of these plays is to convey the same messages (sacrifice for the group) regardless of the changing fashions of the time. But at the same time, we must allow these plays, or any of our narratives, to re-express the underlying principles in contemporary terms.
We use politics (secular religion), education (indoctrination), sports (celebration), television shows (community affiliation), literature (mythology), and somewhat less our high arts of Theater (plays),
While in theory if we asked everyone to watch a canon of movies yearly and christened those movies withe a name, we could create a ritual out of them. There is far more personal conviction and habituation involved when one openly participates in ‘the chorus’. THere is even more if one participates as an actor in the play, or an adjunct in the production of it.
WHile the production of such events as plays and sporting events is far higher a cost than simple ritualized chanting, and while a diverse set of plays and narratives is harder to maintain as a canon than a single ‘book’, the fact that one reinvents the plays, and evolves strategies in the games of sport, teaches an important message that cannot be expressed via the vehicle of ‘chanting’ simplicity. That is: that the variation and innovation and evolution within certain constance do not allow the culture to calcify as have the monotheistic scriptural religions. And, since competition is a necessary and unavoidable property of sports, and since any competition between peers requires congratulation of winners, and solace of losers, the society is better equipped by this process to adapt to the process of CREATIVE DESTRUCTION that is required of any economy in order to encourage the innovation that will maintain collective advantages from which opportunities can be exploited, and therefore result in decreasing prices for all members of the community.
ROMANTICISM, GERMANIC ROMANTICISM, GREEK ROMANTICISM – Refers to periods where a society attempts to create a new historical mythos because either they need a new one during their formation stage, or their old stage has failed.
ROMANTICISM – a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalisation of nature. Romanticism elevated the achievements of what it perceived as heroic individualists and artists, whose pioneering examples would elevate society. It also legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas.
GERMANIC ROMANTICISM – (undone), (status redistribution and concentratoin under the anglo capitalist model)
GREEK ROMANTICISM – (undone) After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization (whether to invasion by the sea peoples, geological events, or trade pattern changes), greeks lost writing for over five hundred years. Upon their reawakening, they were able to recreate their own mythos. A mythos is a framework of narratives that rationalize the SOCIAL ORDER (rules and accounts) and the SOCIAL PORTFOLIO (accumulated contributions to the accounts). This accidental loss of memory, and the ability to create a new binding mythos, was of substantive social and economic benefit to the Greek civilization. We still make use of this revision today. To some degree our deep knowedge of history makes a new romantic period almost impossible for contemporary society – until there is a cultural victor and the current GREAT TRANSFORMATION is complete across all of the major civilizations.
ROTHBARD, ROTHBARDIAN – Murray Rothbard was an exceptional scholar of economic and political history, and a master of REVISIONIST HISTORY. (Which I subscribe to.) He is the author of the Libertarian Manifesto, and along with Milton Friedman, the most influential libertarian of the postwar era. Rothbard’s metaphysical framework relied upon natural law and property, and in particular, the ‘non-aggression principle’, or the ‘principle of non-violence’. Starting with that assumption he derives a substantial system of reasoning based upon the necessity of property for cooperation and calculation. A set of ideas which HOPPE uses in his work The Economics And Ethics Of Private Property, which I rely upon in my work. However, like Mises, Rothbard does not incorporate FORGONE OPPORTUNITY COSTS, and by starting his argument with the assumption of non-violence, he effectively circumvents the entire reason for society: cooperation and land holding. See MISESIAN, HOPPEIAN, THE JEWISH ERROR.