- Aristocratic Reading List : Doolittle’s List
- Richard Duchesne’s Cited Works (TUOWC)
- Ralph Raico’s References on The European Miracle
- The Conservative Reading List
- Human Biodiversity Reading List
- The Library Of The Dark Enlightenment
- The Dark Enlightenment Reading List
- Anarcho Capitalism : Hoppe’s List
- Liberty: David Gordon’s List
- Lew Rockwell’s Liberty Reading List
- On Debate
NOTE: From a related post-Keynesian web site Thoughts On Economics:
“RE: …giving Soros too much credit.”
Well, Soros is just more populist than academic.
There are (as we can see from the postings here) people exploring this problem in many fields: philosophy, mathematics, and economics, as well as history and finance.
When someone comes across the general pattern (the relationship between fractal knowledge expansion: imagination subjectivity, calculability, and time) they label it with the name of whoever they heard the pattern from who was relevant enough to them that they could grasp it.
Darwin and Edison are people we remember because they won the contest, but neither was unique or even the first.
Soros has a legitimacy problem largely because he is considered, probably justifiably, to be an immoral man. He is not particularly innovative. These conceptual wars have been going on for a very long time, and they will go on until we solve “Hume’s Problem”: the problem of induction, or what it is that we can know. Soros certainly isn’t smart enough to solve it, but he’s smart enough and popular enough to popularize the nature of the problem.
But him aside, there are many people in many fields that are working on it, and we’re deceptively close, I think, to solving it. And when we do, we’ll call it by whatever name that may be.
Winner takes all in history.
The New York Times a couple of weeks ago profiled George Soros, the billionaire financial speculator, philanthropist, and student of Karl Popper’s ideas. According to this profile, Soros would like to have an impact on the discipline of economics:
“Now in his eighth decade, [Soros] yearns to be remembered not only as a great trader but also as a great thinker. The market theory he has promoted for two decades and espoused most of his life – something he calls ‘reflexivity’ – is still dismissed by many economists. The idea is that people’s biases and actions can affect the direction of the underlying economy, undermining the conventional theory that markets tend toward some sort of equilibrium.” — Louise Story (2008)
Stiglitz is quoted as saying that Soros might become successful at his goal:
“But Joseph E. Stiglitz, a professor at Columbia who won the Nobel for economics in 2001, said Mr. Soros might still meet success. ‘With a slightly different vocabulary these ideas, I think, are going to become more and more part of the center,’ said Mr. Stiglitz, a longtime friend of Mr. Soros.” — Louise Story (2008)
I suppose one could debate about whether mainstream economics is as open to these ideas as Stiglitz suggests.
About a decade ago is the first time Soros put these ideas into print, as far as I aware. Here is his then definition of reflexivity:
“In the case of scientists, there is only a one-way connection between statements and facts. The facts about the natural world are independent of the statements that scientists make about them… If a statement corresponds to the facts, it is true; if not, it is false. Not so in the case of thinking participants. There is a two-way connection. On the one hand, participants seek to understand the situation in which they participate. They seek to form a picture that corresponds to reality. I call this the passive or cognitive function. On the other hand, they seek to make an impact, to mold reality to their desires. I call this the active or participating function. When both functions are active at the same time, I call the situation reflexive…
…When both functions are at work at the same time, they may interfere with each other. Through the participating function, people may influence the situation that is supposed to serve as an independent variable for the cognitive function. Consequently, the participants’ understanding cannot qualify as objective knowledge…
…Our expectations about future events do not wait for the events themselves; they may change at any time, altering the outcome. That is what happens in financial markets all the time… But reflexivity is not confined to financial markets; it is present in every historical process. Indeed, it is reflexivity that makes a process truly historical…
A truly historical event does not just change the world; it changes our understanding of the world – and that new understanding, in turn, has a new an unpredictable impact on how the world works.”– George Soros (1998: 6-8)
And Soros uses these ideas to criticize the use of equilibrium models in economics.
To me, Soros is expressing the same concept that Post Keynesians call historical time. Post Keynesians reject neoclassical economics. In the failed neoclassical approach, the economy tends towards an economic equilibrium pre-determined by the objective data of tastes, technology, and endowments. Both Soros and the Post Keynesians, with their emphases on expectations, question the objectivity of the data. Today, I turn to Jan Kregel for a statement of the Post Keynesian position:
“There can be no tendency to equilibrium based on a relation between expectations and the objective data of what the consumer will demand and the price he will pay which describes the conditions of equilibrium because the incomes available to consumers will be determined ultimately by the very decisions taken by entrepreneurs on the basis of these expectations.
The post Keynesian approach is thus influenced by Keynes’ insistence that the level of output and employment cannot be considered as objective data determining the conditions of equilibrium because they will be endogenously determined by entrepreneurs’ decisions… Keynes is concerned with the role of expectations in the coordination of individual production plans in a society consisting of several independent producers whose expectations determine the means available to satisfy an uncertain multiplicity of future demands. Expectations themselves determine the objective facts of the conditions of equilibrium… The problem is not whether the objective data necessary to achieve equilibrium will be reflected in subjective data available to the individual, but the very definition of the objective data. Indeed, even its objectivity is questioned.” — Jan Kregel (1986).
And these ideas accompany an concern with processes set in history. (I have previously mentioned Paul Davidson’s use of the concept of non-ergodicity in a formalization of the idea of a process set in history.)
Soros and Post Keynesians like Davidson draw similar practical conclusions from developments of these ideas. The financial system, including internationally, can be a source of economic instability. We need to design new international institutions and conventions to govern finance. The system that has evolved since Richard Nixon abolished the Bretton Woods system doesn’t work, as international economic crisis succeeds international economic crisis.
ReferencesJ. A. Kregel (1986). “Conceptions of Equilibrium: The Logic of Choice and the Logic of Production”, in Subjectivism, Intelligibility, and Economic Understanding: Essays in Honor of Ludwig M. Lachmann on his Eightieth Birthday (ed. by Israel M. Kirzner), New York University Press.George Soros (1998). The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered, Public AffairsLouise Story (2008). “The Face of a Prophet: Soros Craves Respect for His Theories, Not Just His Money”, New York Times (11 April) Business, p. 1
posted by Robert Vienneau at 5:23 AM on Apr 23, 2008
Seattle, WA, United States
I am an independent theorist of Political Economy in the Conservative Libertarian tradition. And as a methodological Propertarian I attempt to complete the work of Rothbard and Hoppe by suggesting post-democratic political solutions for heterogeneous polities.
"De Philosophia Aristocratia"
Anglo Conservatism is the remnant of the European Aristocratic Manorial system and the Classical Liberal philosophy of the Enlightenment, combined with our ancient tribal instincts for group persistence and land-holding. It currently consists as a set of sentiments rather than as an articulated rational philosophy. And without that rational articulation, conservatives lack the ability to create and promote a plan that is a positive and rhetorically defensible alternative to the hazards of accidental bureaucracy and purposeful socialism.
This lack of an articulated philosophy leaves conservatives vulnerable in the public debate with Schumpeterian public intellectuals whose advantage in both volume of production, and simplicity of argument poses a nearly insurmountable challenge.
Libertarianism by contrast, is a rational philosophy of an articulate but permanent minority. It is based upon a solid, rational and critical methodology, even if it is flawed in its initial assumption: the principle of non-violence.
Unfortunately the Rothbardian Anarchist movement has appropriated the term "Libertarian", and left Classical Liberals and Conservatives alienated from the only system of thought with which they need to articulate their political sentiments in rational and empirical rather than moralistic and sentimental form.
By repairing the flaws in Libertarian philosophy we can use its methodology to provide a rhetorical solution for conservatives - a language which in turn may become an articulated philosophical body of argument and advocacy for the frustrated conservative majority.
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